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英文法: 過去分詞形・Past Participle

過去分詞形 past participle - drawing sketch of people talk talked talked

英文法 過去分詞形(Past Participle)

過去分詞はbe+過去分詞で受動態,have+過去分詞で完了形を表します。また動詞の性質をもちながら形容詞・副詞としても働き,副詞で働くときを特に分詞構文と言います。動詞の性質をもっているので,目的語や補語,副詞などとともに句を作ります。

Past participles (過去分詞形:eaten, seen, chosen, stolen, etc) are used in the passive voice (受動態:My bag was stolen!) in English, and for all perfect tense (Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.) forms of a verb.

1. 現在完了形 Present perfect

彼女はまだレッスンを終えていません。
(例)She hasn’t finished her lesson yet.

まだ手帳が見つからない。
(例)I still haven’t found my notebook.

2. 過去完了形 Past perfect

(例)Mio was happy because she had passed her Eiken exam.

(例)She missed the bus because she hadn’t set her alarm.

3. 未来完了形 Future perfect

(例)At the end of the month, I will have been working in this office for ten years.

(例)He will have gone by the time you get here.

4. 条件完了 Conditional perfect

(例)If my apple had not been eaten, I would have used it to make a snack.

(例)I wouldn’t have known, if you hadn’t told me.

5. 受身形 Passive Voice

(例)The end of the TOEIC test was finished by only half the students.

(例)The language learning software was used to help remember the spelling of words.


Passive Verb Formation


TenseSubjectAuxiliaryPast
Participle
SingularPlural
PresentThe lesson/lessonsisarefinished.
Present perfectThe DVD/DVDshas beenhave beenmade.
PastThe poster/posterswaswereprinted.
Past perfectThe book/bookshad beenhad beenripped.
FutureThe test/testswill bewill bechecked.
Future perfectThe form/formswill have beenwill have beendesigned.
Present progressiveThe teacher/teachersis beingare beinginterviewed.
Past progressiveThe game/gameswas beingwere beingdelivered.

Perfect Tense Formation


Ihavefinished the homework.
Youhavebeen to Sapporo.
Hehasjust gone to the bank.
Shehasalready had a break today.
Ithasbeen said before.
Wehaveseen this dictionary before.
Theyhavejust bought a new house.

 

For regular verbs, we normally add “ed” to make past participles. Unfortunately for irregular verbs you just need to remember most of them.


Past Participles as Adjectives


Past Participles can also be used like an adjective in front of a noun:

The stolen pencil was found by students in the subway station.

My broken plate was taken away by the waiter at the restaurant.

Please bring all of the required documents. Your interview is tomorrow.

単語リスト(Word List)


動詞(Verb) → 過去形(Past Simple) → 過去分詞形(Past Participle)


A

am was been

arise arose arisen

B

babysit babysat babysat

be were been

beat beat beaten

become became become

bend bent bent

begin began begun

bet bet bet

bind bound bound

bite bit bitten

bleed bled bled

blow blew blown

break broke broken

breed bred bred

bring brought brought

broadcast broadcast broadcast

build built built

buy bought bought

C

catch caught caught

choose chose chosen

come came come

cost cost cost

cut cut cut

D

deal dealt dealt

dig dug dug

do did done

draw drew drawn

drink drank drunk

drive drove driven

E

eat ate eaten

F

fall fell fallen

feed fed fed

feel felt felt

fight fought fought

find found found

fly flew flown

forbid forbade forbidden

forget forgot forgotten

forgive forgave forgiven

freeze froze frozen

G

get got gotten

give gave given

go went gone

grow grew grown

H

hang* hung hung

have had had

hear heard heard

hide hid hidden

hit hit hit

hold held held

hurt hurt hurt

I

is was been

K

keep kept kept

know knew known

L

lay laid lain

lead led led

leave left left

lend lent lent

let let let

lie ** lay lain

light lit lit

lose lost lost

M

make made made

mean meant meant

meet met met

P

pay paid paid

put put put

Q

quit quit quit

R

read *** read read

ride rode ridden

ring rang rung

rise rose risen

run ran run

S

say said said

see saw seen

sell sold sold

send sent sent

set set set

shake shook shaken

shine shone shone

shoot shot shot

show showed shown

shut shut shut

sing sang sung

sink sank sunk

sit sat sat

sleep slept slept

slide slid slid

speak spoke spoken

spend spent spent

spin spun spun

spread spread spread

stand stood stood

steal stole stolen

stick stuck stuck

sting stung stung

strike struck struck

swear swore sworn

sweep swept swept

swim swam swum

swing swung swung

T

take took taken

teach taught taught

tear tore torn

tell told told

think thought thought

throw threw thrown

U

understand understood understood

W

wake woke woken

wear wore worn

win won won

withdraw withdrew withdrawn

write wrote written


過去形動詞一覧


arose(起こった), babysat(子どもの世話をした), beat(かき混ぜた), became(になった), bent(曲った), began(始まった), bet(賭けに負けた), bound(縛りつけた), bit(噛んだ), bled(血が出った), blew(消した), broke(壊した), bred(繁殖した), brought(持ってきた), broadcast(放送した), built(作った), bought(買った), caught(捕まえた), chose(選んだ), came(来た), cost(かかった), cut(切った), dealt(取引した), dug(掘った), did(した), drew(描いた), drank(飲んだ), drove(運転した), ate(食べた), fell(落ちた), fed(食べ物をあげた), felt(感じた), fought(喧嘩した), found(見つかった), flew(飛んだ), forbade(禁じた), forgot(忘れた), forgave(許した), froze(凍った), got(手に入れた), gave(あげた), went(行った), grew(成長した), hung(掛けた), had(持っていた), heard(聞いた), hid(隠れた), hit(叩いた), held(持った), hurt(痛んだ), was(でした), kept(動作を続けた), knew(知った), laid(寝かした), led(導いた), left(去った), lent(貸した), let(させた), lay(横になった), lit(灯りをつけた), lost(負けた), made(作った), meant(意味した), met(会った), paid(払った), put(置いた), quit(辞めた, 止めた), read(読んだ), rode(乗った), rang(鳴った), rose((陽が)昇った), ran(走った), said(言った), saw(見た), sold(売った), sent(送った), set(整えた), shook(振った), shone(光った), shot(撃った), showed(見せた), shut(閉めた、閉まった), sang(歌った), sank(沈んだ), sat(座った), slept(寝た), slid(滑った), spoke(話した), spent((お金を)使った), spun(回った), spread(広げた), stood(立った), stole(盗んだ), stuck(貼り付けた), stung(刺さった), struck(叩いた), swore(誓った), swept(掃除した, 掃き掃除をした), swam(泳いだ), swung(振った), took(取った), taught(教えた), tore(破った, 引きちぎった), told(教えた), thought(考えた), threw(投げた), understood(理解した), was, were(でした), woke(起きた), wore(着た), won(勝った), withdrew(引き下がる), wrote(書いた)


クイズ(Past Participle Quiz)


am → ___________

arise → ___________

babysit → ___________

be → ___________

beat → ___________

become → ___________

bend → ___________

begin → ___________

bet → ___________

bind → ___________

bite → ___________

bleed → ___________

blow → ___________

break → ___________

breed → ___________

bring → ___________

broadcast → ___________

build → ___________

buy → ___________

catch → ___________

choose → ___________

come → ___________

cost → ___________

cut → ___________

deal → ___________

dig → ___________

do → ___________

draw → ___________

drink → ___________

drive → ___________

eat → ___________

fall → ___________

feed → ___________

feel → ___________

fight → ___________

find → ___________

fly → ___________

forbid → ___________

forget → ___________

forgive → ___________

freeze → ___________

get → ___________

give → ___________

go → ___________

grow → ___________

hang → ___________

have → ___________

hear → ___________

hide → ___________

hit → ___________

hold → ___________

hurt → ___________

is → ___________

keep → ___________

know → ___________

lay → ___________

lead → ___________

leave → ___________

lend → ___________

let → ___________

lie → ___________

light → ___________

lose → ___________

make → ___________

mean → ___________

meet → ___________

pay → ___________

put → ___________

quit → ___________

read → ___________

ride → ___________

ring → ___________

rise → ___________

run → ___________

say → ___________

see → ___________

sell → ___________

send → ___________

set → ___________

shake → ___________

shine → ___________

shoot → ___________

show → ___________

shut → ___________

sing → ___________

sink → ___________

sit → ___________

sleep → ___________

slide → ___________

speak → ___________

spend → ___________

spin → ___________

spread → ___________

stand → ___________

steal → ___________

stick → ___________

sting → ___________

strike → ___________

swear → ___________

sweep → ___________

swim → ___________

swing → ___________

take → ___________

teach → ___________

tear → ___________

tell → ___________

think → ___________

throw → ___________

understand → ___________

wake → ___________

wear → ___________

win → ___________

withdraw → ___________

write → ___________




口コミ:


Glen is a really nice teacher. You should try his lessons. He helped me learn a lot and is good at explaining the differences between words.


Kana




コメント:


3 コメント
英文法: 過去分詞形・Past Participle
Glen Charles Rowell
Thank you for the nice comments Efren and Joan.
Joan Cardillo
Keep up the great work guys.
Efren Filthaut
This site is absolutely fabulous!



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